Mazhinji kupindira kumutauro mune zera rekukura kunoitirwa kune vana vechikoro kana, kunyanya, mumakore ekutanga echikoro. Zvakawanda zvishoma, zvakadaro, izvo zvidzidzo zvine hanya kuvandudzwa kwemutauro mukuyaruka.

Muna 2017, ongororo yakarongeka yakaitwa naLowe nevamwe vake [1] yakafananidza zvidzidzo zvinoverengeka nezvekuvandudza izwi rinonzwika mune vechidiki vakurudzira:

  • maitiro semantic
  • kuenzanisa pakati pephonological uye semantic maitiro
  • maitiro semantic akasanganiswa nemaitiro efonitiki

Kunyangwe iyo nhamba diki yeongororo (13), iyo kazhinji isiri yakakwirira mhando uye iyo heterogeneity yezvekupindira uye yematanho masystem, vanyori havasati vasvika zvinonakidza (chikamu) mhedziso.

Kupindira kweSemantic

Mhedzisiro yerudzi urwu rwekupindira ishoma. Chidzidzo chimwe chete kubva pazvina zvakatariswa [1] chakatungamira mukuvandudzwa kukuru. Kurapa kwakatsanangurwa muchidzidzo ichi mukubvunzurudza (chiyero chisina kurongwa chakatemerwa kiriniki pane vakomana makumi mana nemashanu pakati pemakore gumi negumi nemashanu) zvaive zvakavakirwa pa:

  • kupatsanurwa kwemazwi kuburikidza nemepu dzemepfungwa
  • kushandiswa kwezvirevo, antonyms, mazwi ePolysemic uye tsanangudzo

Kurapa kwacho kwakatora mavhiki matanhatu, paine zvikamu zviviri zvemaminetsi makumi mashanu pasvondo. Boka rekutonga rakawana kurapwa kuchitsamira pakurondedzera zvinhu (nyaya yenyaya, kutaurirana nyaya uye kunzwisisa pamwe nehumiro). Mapoka ese ari maviri, pakupedzisira, akaratidzira kuvandudza kwakakura uye kusarudzika generalizations kumashoko asina kudzidziswa.

Kufananidza pakati pekune semantic uye phonological kupindira

Zvidzidzo zviviri zvakafananidza phonological uye semantic kupindira kwekuvandudza kwemazwi anonzwika.

Kuongororwa kwakaitwa naHyde Wright nevamwe vake [2], kwakaitwa pavana makumi matatu vane makore masere kusvika gumi nemaviri kwenguva yakareba mavhiki mashanu (katatu times pasvondo), zvichienzaniswa:

  • kupindira kwenyaya: kuratidzwa kwekusimudzira kunoteverwa nemibvunzo yemabvunzana (semuenzaniso, ishoko rakareba kana pfupi?)
  • kupindirana kwesemantic: mharidzo yekusimudzira inoteverwa nemibvunzo yeemantic (i.e. iwe unogona kutsanangura uyu mufananidzo?)
Iwe unogona zvakare kufarira: PPVT - Peabody Mufananidzo Shanduro Yekuongorora

Maererano nekudzidza uku, kupindirana kwemaitiro kwakabudirira zvakanyanya mukudyidzana mumazwi asina kudzidziswa (zvisinei, iyo nguva yemessage yekurapa yakagara zvakapetwa kairi izvo zvekurapa kweponono).

Mune kudzidza neakafanana chaizvo dhizaini, Bragard uye vaaishanda navo [3] vakawana kuti:

  • vana vane zvinetso zvezvikomba vakapindura zvirinani kurapwa semantic
  • vana vane semantic zvinetso vakapindura zvirinani kurapa kwechivanhu

Yakasanganiswa phonological uye semantic kupindira

Izvo zvidzidzo zvinomwe zvakaongororwa, kunze kwekumwe kusiyana kwakasiyana (kurapwa kweumwe neumwe kana mudiki), ese anoratidza kuvandudzika kwakakosha.

Maitiro anoshandiswa anowanzoita e kugadzira pfungwa mamepu uye maposta namashoko matsva adzidza; kupindira kwemazwi kunotsanangurwa mune zvishoma zvidzidzo, asi kazhinji zvinechekuita nemabasa akadai bingo nezviratidzo zvemashoko zvine chekuita nemazwi matsva adzidza.

Nguva yekupindira inosiyana pakati pemasvondo matanhatu kusvika gumi nemisangano yemakumi matatu kusvika makumi matanhatu emaminitsi kweimwe, kaviri kana katatu pasvondo.

Yakasanganiswa phonological uye semantic kupindira

Kunyangwe iyo nhamba diki yezvidzidzo (uye yavo yakazara) yakakwanisa kuti vanyori vapedze:

  • kupindira pamutauro unonzwika kunyange mukuyaruka kunogona kutungamira mukuvandudzwa kukuru
  • iyo nzira yakabatanidzwa yefonotiki-semantic inoita kunge inofarira nzira dzeponological chete kana semantic

[1] Lowe H, Henry L, Müller LM, Jhot VL. Kupindira kwemazwi evachiri kuyaruka vane dambudziko remutauro: ongororo yakarongeka. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2018;53(2):199-217.

[2] JOFFE, VL, 2006, Kuwedzeredza mutauro uye kutaurirana mumitauro-vanonetsekana vechikoro vana vekusekondari vechikoro. Muna J. Clegg naJ. Ginsborg (eds), Mutauro uye Kusagadzikana Kwemagariro: Mufungo mune Kudzidzira (Chichester: Wiley), mapeji. 207-216.

Iwe unogona zvakare kufarira: PhonoClick! Nhau dzemafonetiki

[3] HYDE WRIGHT, S., GORRIE, B., HAYNES, C. uye SHIPMAN, A., 1993, Chii chiri muzita? Kuenzanisa kurapa kwekushandiswa kwemazwi ekutsvaga kukanganisa uchishandisa semantic uye nzira dzephonological. Yekudzidzisa JLanguage Kudzidzisa uye Kurapa, 9, 214–229.

[4] BRAGARD, A., SCHELSTRAETE, M.-A., SNYERS, P. uye JAMES, DGH, 2012, Kutsvaga-izwi kupindira kwevana vane chaiwo kusakwana kwemita: kudzidza kwakawanda-chete nyaya. Mutauro, Kutaura uye Kunzwa masevhisi muZvikoro, 43 (2), 222–232.

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Mutauro kusagadzikana uye dysorthography
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