A -B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - Q - R - S - T - V

A

Izwi rekugara: tsika yekuita yekutaura yemunhu inowedzera uye yakafanana neyekutaura kwemunhu anoperekedza (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

Asina fluas aphasia: [aphasia] Aphasia inoratidzirwa nekugadzirwa zvisirizvo, mitsara pfupi, kuomarara kutaura, kukanganisika prosody; panogona kunge paine agrammatism. Maitiro ekusiyanisa fluent kubva kune isina-fluid aphasia ndeiyo: kuvepo kwemazwi apraxia, kureba kwemutsara, huwandu hwekutaura, kuvapo kweagrammatism kana slang uye prosody. Kazhinji, kuvepo kweshoko apraxia uye kureba kwemutsara zvinotariswa pamusoro pezvose: kana pasina mitsara inosanganisira kanokwana mazwi matanhatu (angangoita mutsara mumwe chete pagumi) unowanzove usiri pfini aphasia (Basso, Kuziva uye kudzidzisa zvekare aphasia, 2009: 64).

Afemia: [aphasia] Yekutanga term yeiyo ichazodaidzwa aphasia, yakagadzirirwa naPaul Broca kutsanangura avo vaisakwanisa kutaura ivo pachavo kunyangwe vaive nekunzwisisa kwakanaka.

Affricazione: [mutauro] Sisitiro yemaitiro: kutsiva kweruzha rwekuita nerwakabatana. Muenzaniso: "cagia" ye "pamba" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology)

Variance Analysis (ANOVA): [zviverengero, nzira yekutsvagurudza] nzira yekubvumidza iyo inobvumidza iwe kuenzanisa mapoka akasiyana mune imwechete nzira yekufungidzira kweiyo null hypothesis, nekuenzanisa kusiyana pakati pemapoka uye zvisina kujairika mutsauko (ona zvakare Bolzani naCanestrari, Logic yeiyo Statistical Test, 1995).

Anteriorizzazione: [mutauro] Shuwa maitiro Muenzaniso: "tasa" ye "imba" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology).

aposiopesis: [mitauro] Kukanganisika kukanganisa kwemutongo hakuenderere mberi. Sechimiro chechinyorwa, chinoitirwa kutendera muverengi kana muteereri kuti afungidzire mamwe mutsara. Panyaya ye aphasias, zvakadaro, inowanzova kukanganisa kwekusakwanisa kuenderera nekuda kwekunetseka mukurongedza mutsara kana matambudziko mukutora izwi.

Kudzidza pasina kukanganisa: [neuropsychology, memory] nzira yekumusoro yekutanga yakatanga kugadzirwa kune varwere veannesic, inosanganisira kutungamira nekufambiswa kwekudzidza kwemashoko kuitira kudzivirira kukanganisa uye kuyeukwa kwayo panguva yakatarwa (ona zvakare Kukanganisa Kudzidza muKunzwisisa Kudzoreredza: Iyo Yakaoma Ongororo, 2012; Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Refundization, 2012).

Apraxia: [neuropsychology] kuvhiringidza kwechokwadi kwekufamba kwekudzidzira kwekufamba, zvese zviitwa zvekushandiswa kwezvinhu uye zviitwa zvekufananidzira. Haisi mhedzisiro yekushandurwa kwemotokari system, yekushomeka kwehungwaru, yekushomeka kwekungwarira kana yekushomeka mukuzivikanwa kwezvinhu (ona zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Yakakodzera apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia maererano nekushandiswa kwechinhu (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Ideomotor apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia ine chekuita nekushandurwa kwemamwe maitiro akasiyana, zvese zvisina basa (pane kutevedzera) uye nekufananidzira (onawo zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001)

Kuvaka Apraxia: [neuropsychology] rudzi rweapraxia iyo ine chekuita nekuwanikwa kweiyo geometric chiumbwa (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Clothing apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia maererano nekugona kupfeka (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Apraxia yemaziso: [neuropsychology] apraxia iyo inosanganisira kuchinja kwekufamba kwemaziso (ona futi Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Kurume Apraxia: [neuropsychology] mhando yeapraxia inoguma nekusagona kutora matanho (ona zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Optic ataxia: [neuropsychology] inoonekwa yekushomeka kushomeka iyo inosanganisira kusvika pakukanganisa nechirungu chakananga kune chinhu chakaonekwa. Iyo inowanzo kukonzerwa nekukuvara kwehuropi kune iyo dorsal visual nzira. Izvo hazvitsamiri mukutadza kuziva kuti chinhu chinosvikwa nekubatwa, zvisinei, kubatidzana nacho iri pamhepo level kwakaoma (onawo Ladàvas naBerti, Manual yeNeuropsychology, 2014).

kutendeseka (kana kuvimbika): [psychometry] chivakwa chechinhu chekuyera (bvunzo) icho chinoratidza mwero wekugadzikana kwehuwandu kana zviyero zvadzokororwa. Mune mamwe mazwi, inotiudza kuti bvunzo yakavimbika sei (onawo Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

Sarudzo yekutarisira: [neuropsychology, kutarisa] chikamu chekutarisa chine chekuita nekugovera zviwanikwa zvekutarisa pane zvakakurudzira kukurudzira, kudzikisira kupindira kwekukurudzira uko kuripo asi zvisina basa pachiitiko chinofanirwa kuitwa. Iyo domain yekusarudza yekutarisira inosanganisira kutarisisa kwakatarisana, kwakakamurwa kutariswa uye kuchinjisa kutarisisa (Vallar et al., Neuropsychological Refundization, 2012).

B

Compact Bilingualism (kana Multilingualism): [mutauro] apo mitauro miviri yakadzidzwa panguva imwe chete (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

Yakabatanidzwa Bilingualism (kana kuwanda): [mutauro] apo mitauro miviri kana inopfuura yakadzidzwa vasati vatanga kuyera asi kwete mudanga remhuri (semuenzaniso kutamiswa) (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

Subordinated bilingualism (kana kuwanda): [mutauro] apo mutauro mumwe kana anoverengeka anoshandiswa uchishandisa mutauro wekutanga semurevereri (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

Pekutanga dzakateerana mitauro miviri: [mutauro] kana mwana akaiswa pachena kune wechipiri mutauro mushure mekutanga, asi mune chero nguva asati asvika makore masere (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

Late sequential bilingualism: [mutauro] kana mwana ave pachena kumutauro wechipiri mushure mekutanga, asi mushure memakore masere (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

Simultaneous bilingualism: [mutauro] kana mwana aratidzwa mitauro miviri kubva pamazuva ekutanga ehupenyu (ona Marini Dambudziko remutauro, 2014: 68)

C

Mutakuri mutsara (kana mutsara wekutsigira): mutsara unowanzoshandiswa unogona kuseta mazwi chaiwo (semuenzaniso: "Ndapota, ndipe ...").

circumlocution: [mitauro] kushandiswa kwe "kutendeuka kwemazwi" kureva izwi risingakwanise kudzoreredzwa (nguva zhinji kwazvo mune aphasias). Sekai: "uya wekucheka chingwa" kutaura "banga".

Kuperetera kugona[ Bhatiri rekuongorora kwekunyora uye kuperetera hunyanzvi muchikoro chekumanikidzwa)

Augmentative uye Zvimwe Kukurukurirana (CAA): chero kutaurirana kunotsiva kana kuwedzera mutauro wekutaura; inzvimbo yedzidzo yekiriniki inotsvaga kudzosera kuremara kwehurema kana kwekusingaperi kwevanhu vane kudzvanywa kwezvinodikanwa zvinodiwa (ASHA, 2005, yakataurwa Constantine, Kuvaka mabhuku uye nyaya neCAA, 2011: 54)

Conduites d'approche: [aphasia] kuyedza kusvika izwi kuburikidza nenhema kutanga kana phonological paraphasias. Sekai: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." kutaura "pasita" (ona semuenzaniso Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143 e Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological kugadzirisa, 2012)

confabulation: [neuropsychology] muchimiro chekukanganisika ndangariro chiratidzo "yakanaka" iyo yakarongedzwa sekugadziriswa kwekungoburitswa kwezvirevo kana zviito zvisingaenderane nemashure kana yakapfuura, zvazvino kana remangwana mamiriro enyaya (Kubva ndebvu, G. (1993b). Mhando dzakasiyana dzekusangana. Cortex, 29, 567-581) - ndatenda kuna Ilaria Zannoni

kuwirirana. Mamwe maviri akasiyana-siyana anobatanidzwa, iyo yakasimba iyo inogadziriswa ichave. Iko kuwirirana kunosiyana pakati pezvikamu zve1 (sezvo imwe inoshanduka inowedzera, kuwanda kunowedzera kwekukwira) uye -1 (sezvo imwe inoshanduka inowedzera, pane nguva dzose kuderera kweimwe; ine chiyero che 0, pane nzvimbo kusavapo zvachose kwekubatana pakati pezvakasiyana.
Kuvapo kwekubatana, kunyangwe kune yakasimba, hakuratidzi kubatanidza kukonzeresa pakati pezvakakomba zviviri (onawo Welkowits, Cohen naEwen, Statistics yeZvibodzwa zveSainzi, 2009).

Kurara: [aphasia] zvishoma, phonemic uye / kana graphemic zano, rakapihwa kana murwere akatadza kudzoreredza izwi raanoda akazvimirira (ona, semuenzaniso, Conroy et al., Kushandisa phonemic cueing ye kungoerekana nekudoma mazita kuti vafungidzire kupindura kwechinhu kurapa kwemedia mune aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] kudzvinyirira kwekuuya kweanoronal kwechimiro chakanangwa. Izvi zvinoitika nesion yeanorons ari mabviro ema axons anosvika pakugadzirirwa chimiro, kana ne lesion ye axons pachavo (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Kushaya simba kwepfungwa: [neuropsychology] fomu nyoro yekushomeka kwepfungwa (onawo kuchenjera kwekuita kana kudzora kwepfungwa), inoonekwa neakanyanya pazasi yepakati kugona kwepfungwa (IQ pakati pegumi nemakumi mashanu nemakumi mashanu), kuomarara mukujairana kwenzvimbo uye kutaridzika kwekushomeka panguva yekuvandudza.

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] kudzvinyirira kwekuuya kweanoronal kwechimiro chakanangwa. Izvi zvinoitika nesion yeanorons ari mabviro ema axons anosvika pakugadzirirwa chimiro, kana ne lesion ye axons pachavo (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Neuronal degeneration: [neuroscience] kufambira mberi kurasikirwa kweiyo chaiyo mamiriro uye basa reuroni kana boka remitsipa izvo zvinogona kuguma nekunyangarika kwavo (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

muffling: [mutauro] Sisitiro yemaitiro: kutsiva kweruzha nematsi inowirirana. Muenzaniso: "panana" ye "bhanana" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology)

Kutsauka kwakasiyana (zvinoreva mraba kutsauka): [manhamba] anofungidzira nezvekusiyana kweyakagadzikwa yedata, inowanikwa kubva kune mraba mraba wekusiyana. Iyo inoratidza kuti yakakura sei iyo data yakapararira yakakomberedza paavhareji (i.e. yakawanda sei ivo vanotsaukira paavhareji kubva mairi) asi, kusiyana nekusiyana, iyi paramende inoratidzwa muchikamu chimwechete cheyero sevhareji (ona zvakare Welkowits, Cohen naEwen, Statistics yeZvibodzwa zveSainzi, 2009).

dysgraphia: [kudzidza] kunyora neyakaoma, pasina izvi zvinokonzerwa nehuropi kana hutano hwekugadzika (Ajuriagu ter et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. .in Di Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [neuropsychology] kusagadzikana kunokanganisa kuzadzikiswa kwemaitiro ekudzidza mota maitiro, kunyanya ayo anoonekwa panguva yekutevedzera. Izvo hazvitsamiri kukushomeka kwemagetsi system, hurema hwehungwaru kana kushaya hanya. Iyo inosiyana neapraxia nekuti izwi rekuti dyspraxia rinoreva chirwere chakaonekwa panguva yekuvandudzwa (ona zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Verbal dyspraxia: [mutauro] Kushushikana kwepakati muchirongwa uye kuzadzikiswa kwekufambisa kunonzwisisika kunodiwa kugadzirwa kwemanzwi, masiraidhi uye mazwi uye nesangano ravo rakateerana.Chilosis naCerri, Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 vd. wo Sabbadini, Dyspraxia muzera rekusimudzira: ongororo nekupindira maitiro, 2005)

Developmental yechipiri yemazwi mutauro kusagadzikana: [mutauro] chero kusakwana kwemitauro kunoitika panguva yekuvandudza, paine kusakwana kana kushomeka kwemitauro yacho pachako, mune zvidzidzo zvine imwe kana inotevera yeizvi zvinoteedzero: kudzora kwekuziva, kusarudzika (kukura). yebasa rekuongorora, rakakosha kusangana-tsika tsika (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Mwana ane dambudziko rekutaura. Kutaura kunoongororwa kurapwa uye kurapwa, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Hemispheric kutonga: [neuropsychology] kuwanda kweimwe hemisphere pane imwe mukutonga kweyekuziva kana mota basa; saka ndiyo hwaro hwe hemispheric lateralization. Mienzaniso mitauro, kazhinji ine kuruboshwe hemispheric kutonga, uye visuo-spatial maitiro, ane kurudyi hemispherical kutonga (ona zvakare Habib, Hemispheric Dominance, 2009, EMC - Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [mutauro] kudzokororwa kwemazwi kana mitsara yakateererwa, usinganyatsonzwisise kwavari. Zvinoitika mumuviri muvana kunyanya pamakore matatu (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) uye pathological muvakuru, semuParkinson's.

Tarisiro mhedzisiro: [nzira yekutsvagisa] kushandurwa kwemhedzisiro yeongororo nekuda kwekutarisira kwemigumisiro yakasimudzwa nemuongorori kana neyeyedzidzo zvidzidzo ivo pachavo. Yakatanga kurondedzerwa nachiremba wepfungwa Robert Rosenthal uyo waanodanwa mune zvimwe zviitiko Rosenthal athari (kana kunyange Pygmalion athari o kuzvizadzisa chiporofita). Icho chinhu chakakosha zvikuru kufunga nezve mukutsvagorora mune izvo mugariro wevanhu chinhu chinosarudza uye nekuda kweichi chikonzero ichi mugumisiro unowanzonzi mubvunzo sechinhu chakakomba muzvidzidzo pamusoro pemhedzisiro yekurapa isiri kushandisa boka rinoshanda rekutonga (kureva mune yekurapa kana imwe nzira kune inoedzwa) kana iyo isingashandisi chero boka rekutonga.

Mode mhedzisiro: [kudzidza] ona Dzidziso Yehunyanzvi hweMultimedia Kudzidza

Pygmalion athari: vedi Tarisiro mhedzisiro

Placebo athari: [Psychology, mushonga] kuvandudzwa kwakapihwa nekurapa pasina mhedzisiro uye kwakabatana pachinzvimbo kune kuvimba kwakaiswa pakurapa pachako. Izvi mhedzisiro, zvakafanana kuneTarisiro mhedzisiro, inowanzove chipingamupinyi pakutsvaga mashoma ekurapa uye inochengetwa nekushandiswa kwemapoka ezvidzidzo, anonzi azvowo mapoka anotonga, uko kurapwa kusingapihwe kana kwakabatwa kunoitwa

Redundancy mhedzisiro: [kudzidza] ona Dzidziso Yehunyanzvi hweMultimodal Kudzidza

Rosenthal athari: vedi Tarisiro mhedzisiro

hemianopia: [neuropsychology] kurasikirwa kwekuona mune hafu yemunda wekuona (kana yeiyo quadrant imwechete mune ye quadrantanopia) inotevera maronda eiyo optic chiasm, optic turakiti, optical radiation kana inoonekwa cortex (ona zvakare Ladàvas naBerti, Manual yeNeuropsychology, 2014)

Spatial eminegligence (ona Kusateerera)

okuti: [mutauro] zvichienderana nechirevo chakashandiswa, chinogona kutsanangurwa se "kubuda kwemazwi pakati pemamwe maviri anomira (akazara kana asina chinhu) anogara angangoita masekondi maviri" (acoustic chinongedzo), "homogeneous conceptual block, kana chirevo chakareruka kana chakaomarara" ( semantic chinongedzo), "mutongo mukuru unoteverwa nechero yevakanyatsoumbwa vakaumbwa vetairi" (girama chinongedzo). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Type I kukanganisa: [psychometry] ramba null hypothesis kana ichi chiri chokwadi.
Semuenzaniso: muongorori anofungidzira kuti iyo nyowani kurapwa inovandudza mamiriro efonological zviri nani pane kurapwa kwemaitiro; Mushure mekuedza iyo hypothesis, inoramba H0 (i.e. kuti marapirwo maviri akaenzana) uye inobvuma H1 (i.e. kuti kurapwa kutsva kuri nani) asi muchokwadi marapiro maviri aya anopa mhedzisiro imwe uye misiyano yakawanikwa inoenderana nzira yekukanganisa kana kusvika kumhedzisiro yemukana (onawo Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

Type II kukanganisa: [psychometry] gamuchira iyo null hypothesis kana ichi chiri chenhema.
Semuenzaniso: muongorori anofungidzira kuti iyo nyowani kurapwa inovandudza mamiriro efonological zviri nani pane kurapwa kwemaitiro; Mushure mekuedza iyo hypothesis, inogamuchira H0 (i.e. kuti marapirwo maviri akaenzana) uye inoramba H1 (i.e. kuti kurapwa kutsva kuri nani) asi muchokwadi marapiro maviri aya anopa mhedzisiro dzakasiyana. Kushaikwa kwemhedzisiro mune ino kesi, kune rimwe divi, kunoenderana nekukanganisa kwemaitiro, zvikanganiso zvishoma zvishoma nekuda kwemhedzisiro yenyaya, kana nekuda kwesimba rakaderera rekuyedza chibodzwa (ona zvakare Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

F

Arithmetic chokwadi: [masvomhu] Iwo mhedzisiro yezviitwa zvezviitwa izvo zvisingafanirwe kuverengerwa, asi zvakatobatwa mundangariro. Semuenzaniso kuwedzeredza matafura uye nyore sums uye subtriers. (Poli, Molin, Lucangeli naCornoldi, Memocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Vanyori: [aphasia] yakazara yakamisikidzwa yakaumbwa nemanzwi, mbozhanhare, syllables kana zvidimbu zvemashoko. Ivo vanowanikwa zvakanyanya mukutanga kwenhema. "Ehe nhasi izuva rakanaka" (ona semuenzaniso Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

phonology: [mitauro] Kuranga kunonzvera kugona kwehunyanzvi hwemutauri kwerurimi rwaamai, kureva gadziriro iri kuvandudzwa mumakore ekutanga ehupenyu hwomunhu uye mune musiyano unowanikwapo pakati pezwi rinosiyanisa zvirevo nemanzwi ayo usavasiyanise (Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Mutsara wemuvara: [mutauro] Maitiro anobatanidza imwe ruvara nechinhu chimwe nechimwe chechirevo (chinyorwa, chinyorwa, chiito ...). Inogona kushandiswa kune ese akanyorwa mitsara uye iyo inogadzirwa nemapikicha (ona, semuenzaniso, AA VV, De Filippis kutaura kurapa protocol, 2006).

Fricazione: [mutauro] Sisitiro yemaitiro: kutsiva kwechirevo kana chakabatanidzwa ruzha neruoko. Muenzaniso: "fasso" ye "chokwadi" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology)

Functors: [mitauro] vd. Vhura uye wakavharira mazwi ekirasi

Executive mabasa: [neuropsychology] yakaoma seti yekuziva mabasa ekuronga uye nekuzvidira kudzora kwemaitiro, zvakakosha mune zvisiri-zvemagetsi zviitiko zvinoda kutarisirwa kwakakosha kwekutarisa (ona zvakare iyo chinyorwa chedu pamabasa ekutonga; Grossi naTrojano, Neuropsychology yeiyo Frontal Lobes, 2013).

G

Kubhururuka: [mutauro] Sisitiro yemaitiro: kutsiva kwecononant pamwe nemusangano. Muenzaniso: "foia" ye "shizha" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology)

Batonic gesture: rudzi rwemanyorero apo maoko anotungamira kubva kumusoro kuenda kuzasi kuratidza masystems eshoko kana mazwi echirevo (pane basa rekuratidzira ona. Misimboti yekurapa kwekutaura muzera rekukura, p. 234)

Yakakomba Yakawana Brain kukuvara: [neurology]: "yakanyanya kuwana yakakuvara uropi" (GCA) inoreva kukuvara kwehuropi, nekuda kwecranioencephalic trauma kana zvimwe zvinokonzeresa (brain anoxia, hemorrhage, nezvimwewo), sekusarudza mamiriro egomarara (GCS = / < 8 kwemaawa anopfuura makumi maviri nemana), uye sensorimotor, kusanzwisisika kana maitiro, izvo zvinotungamira kukuremara kwakanyanya (cf. Consensus Musangano: Yakanaka Kiriniki Kudzidzira muchipatara Kudzoreredzwa Kwevanhu vane Seve Yakawanikwa Bongo).

Control group: [nzira yekutsvagurudza] mukutsvagiramo uko kunonzvera mhedzisiro yekuzvimiririra kwakasiyana pamapoka ezvidzidzo, semuenzaniso kurapwa, muenzaniso unowanzogoverwa muzvikamu zviviri: boka rekuyedza, iro rinowana kurapwa kuri kuongorora. yakazvimirira), uye boka rekutonga, iro panzvimbo pacho harigamuchire chero kurapwa kana kugashira imwe yakasarudzika (saka risinga perekedzwa neiyo yakazvimirira inoshanduka). Boka rekudzora ndiro iro iro marapiro aripo pakurapwa anoenzaniswa paboka rekuyedza kudzikisira simba rehumwe mukana (onawo Ercolani, Areni naMannetti, Tsvagiridzo Mune Psychology, 1990).

I

Kunzwisisa-mota kupindira: [neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] chiitiko chinoonekwa panguva imwechete yekuitwa kwemotokari basa (semuenzaniso kufamba) uye basa rekuziva (semuenzaniso kutaura mazwi ese anotanga kwetsamba yakapihwa); mune aya mamiriro ezvinhu zvinokwanisika kuona kuderedzwa kwemotokari, kungwara kana kuita kwese kuita. Kuvhiringidzika-mota kukanganiswa kunonyanya kufundwa mune mamiriro eiyo multiple sclerosis sezvo ichiitika kakawanda uye zvakanyanya zvakajeka kupfuura mune hutano huwandu. (Ona Ruggieri et al., 2018, Lesion chiratidzo mepu yekuziva-postural kupindira mune akawanda sclerosis).

Muchinjiko-modal kubatanidzwa: [neuropsychology] chiitiko icho chinosanganisira kusanganisa ruzivo kubva munzira dzakasiyana dzekunzwa mune imwe chete pfungwa. Chaizvoizvo, iko kufunga kunosanganisira kudyidzana pakati pezviviri kana kupfuura zvakasiyana zvekunzwa modalities (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Chivimbo chakamuka: [psychometry] ndeye huwandu hwekukosha pakati pematanho maviri (akaderera uye epamusoro) mukati umo imwe paramende (ine chivimbo) inowanikwa.
Semuenzaniso: kana mushure mekunge ndarayira WAIS-IV iIQ ye102 ichibuda ine 95% chivimbo chakapatsanuka pakati pegumi nenomwe, izvi zvinoreva kuti pa 97% mukana we "Ichokwadi" IQ yemunhu akaongororwa kukosha pakati pegumi ne107. 95 (onawo Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

Zvimwe hypothesis: [psychometry] inoratidzwawo neH1. mundima yekutsvagurudza ndiyo hypothesis yakaumbirwa nemuongorori uye inoitirwa kuidzwa.
Kana, semuenzaniso, mutsvagi achigutsikana kuti kumwe kurapa kunopa mhedzisiro dzakasiyana pane kurapwa kwemaitiro, H1 inomiririra kuvapo kwemusiyano uyu pakati penzira mbiri dzakasiyana.
Izvo zvakare zvinotsanangurwa seizvo zvichienderana nekuti izvo null hypothesis manyepo, zvakare nekutsanangudza kukosha kweakapihwa kukosha kwekufarira (ona zvakare Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

Null hypothesis: [psychometry] yakaratidzwawo neH0, mundima yekutsvagisa inoreva iyo hypothesis inoonekwa seyechokwadi mukushayikwa kwouchapupu hunopesana hungagona kuramba.
Kana, semuenzaniso, yakanangidzirwa kuratidza kuti kurapwa kumwe kunoshanda kupfuura kumwe, H0 inomiririra hypothesis yekuti hapana mutsauko pakati peye kurapwa kwemaviri.
Iyo inotsanangurwa zvakare seiyo mune iyo iyo kukosha kweparamende muhuwandu kunojekeswa kana musiyano unotarisirwa (unowanzoenderana zero) pakati pezvikamu zvevanhu vaviri (onawo Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

L

Avhareji Kureba kweChitauro (LME): [mutauro] Yakatangwa naBrown muna1973, pfungwa yehurefu hweremo inoratidza avhareji yemazwi kana morphemes inogadzirwa nemutauri pane sampu - kazhinji - yemitsara zana (ona chirevo). Ndiwo mamwe emakero ehunyanzvi hwemitauro mukugadzira (ona, Brown, Mutauro wekutanga, 1973).

M

Mepu Yeti: [aphasia] Hypothesis zvinoenderana neizvozvo varrammatic varwere, apo vachichengetedza kugona kwakanaka kwemaacticic, vakaomerwa kupa zvikamu zvinogutsa zvevati vechirevo kune iyo nharo yezvirevo chechiito (cf. Boscarato neModena mu Flosi, Charlemagne naRossetto, Lkugadzirisa munhu ane aphasia, 2013: 57)

Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [aphasia] nzira yekugadzirisazve aphasia iyo inoshandisa iyo melodic zvikamu zvekutaura (melody uye rwiyo) kuburikidza nekuimba (ona Norton et al., Melodic Intonation Therapy: Inogoverwa Pfungwa dzeMabatiro Ainoita uye Nei Zvichida Rubatsiro, 2009)

Working memory: [neuropsychology] Sistimu iyo inobvumidza iwe kuti uise ruzivo kwenguva pfupi ruzivo kuti uzvigone kana kuishandisa Baddeley uye Hitch, Kushanda Memory, 1974). Onawo chinyorwa chedu Chii chiri kushanda mundangariro.

Kufunga kwendangariro: [neuropsychology] kugona kurangarira kuita chiitiko mushure mekuchironga (ona semuenzaniso, Rouleau et al. Prospential memory kukanganisika mune akawanda sclerosis: ongororo, 2017). Onawo chinyorwa chedu chakadzama pane Inorangarira ndangariro mune akawanda sclerosis

Meta-ongororo: [zviverengero] mhando dzekuongorora huwandu dzinobvumidza kupfupisa mhedzisiro yezvakasiyana zvidzidzo zvine pamusoro penyaya imwechete, kuyedza kudzikisira zvinokonzeresa zvinowanikwa mukushomeka kwemhedzisiro yezvimwe zvidzidzo, zvichiita kuti chero zviwanzobuda (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: izwi rinoreva kuzivisisa nezveruzivo rwako uye, panguva imwecheteyo, maitiro nemaitiro ayo anozvidzora (ona futi Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Metafonologia: kugona kuenzanisa, chikamu uye kusarura mazwi anopiwa nemuromo pamusoro pechimiro chechirevo chavoBishop & Snowling, Budiriro dyslexia uye chaiyo mutauro kukanganisa: zvakafanana kana zvakasiyana?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

Modelling (ona Kuumbwa)

Kubvisa uye inflectional morphemes: derivational morphemes dzinoshandura zvinorehwa nechigadziko (i.k.o + in + a); inflectional morphemes chete vanoshandura inflectional zvikamu zvemashoko. Semuenzaniso, munhukadzi kana nhamba: Cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Kusateerera: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome, kazhinji inokonzerwa nekukuvara kwehuropi, iyo ine hushomhara mukuziva kwe spatial. Iye munhu arikuzviratidza zviratidzo izvi anoratidza kuomesa nzvimbo yekukanganisa nezvekukuvara kwehuropi, kusaziva zvakanaka zvechiratidzo chiripo mune imwe nzvimbo yemunhu nzvimbo (kazhinji mukati), zvemukati kana zvekunze (onawo chinyorwa chedu Kuregeredza: iro rima renyika)

Unilateral spatial kusaitira hanya (ona Kusateerera)

Mirror neurons: [neuroscience] kirasi yemuroni inodzidziswa kana munhu akaita chiito uye kana iye mumwecheteyo akaona chiito chimwe chakaitwa nechimwe chidzidzo (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [mitauro] uchishandisa izwi rimwe chete chirevo kana chikumbiro chaizoda mutsara wese. Iyo inofanidzirwa yekutanga kwazvo kukura kwemutauro mumwana. Ex: "cua" ye "Ndiri kuda mvura".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] izwi rinoburitswa zvisiri izvo zvine chekuita nechinangwa. Paraphasia inogona kuve yemafonitiki (semuenzaniso "libbium" ye "bhuku") kana semantic ("dhairekitori" ye "bhuku"). (ona semuenzaniso Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Vhura uye wakavharira mazwi ekirasi: [mitauro] mazwi ekirasi yakavhurika (kana zvemukati zvemukati) izita, mazita ekufanidzira, zvirevo zvakajeka, zvirevo uye zvirevo zvinopera mu -mente; yakavharwa mazwi ekirasi (kana function mazwi o functors) zvirevo, zvisiri-zvinokodzera zvirevo, zvinyorwa, zvibvumirano, zveruzivo uye modal enzi. Nepo izvo zvemukati zvemukati zvichiratidza semantic concepts, iwo mafaro anotaridza hukama pakati pemazwi.

Tsanangudzo Dzemafungiro: [aphasia] nzira yakatsanangurwa na Leonard, Rochon naLaird (2008) iyo irimo mukuratidzira murwere nemufananidzo uri pakati pepepa nechikumbiro chekudzoswa kweshoko rakatarwa. Pasinei nekubudirira, murwere anokumbirwa kuti adzore izwi renzwi, iro rekutanga phoneme, rimwe izwi rinotanga nefoni imwecheteyo uye nenhamba yezviraudzo. (ona Boscarato naModena mu Flosi, Charlemagne naRossetto, Lkugadzirisa munhu ane aphasia, 2013: 47)

Neuronal plastikiity: [neuropsychology] Iko kugona kwekuti nerve masero kuve kugona kuita mamwe mabasa kana zvichidikanwa. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Imeji yekufunga, 2007: 15).

Statistical bvunzo simba: [psychometry] zvinoreva mukana wekuramba null hypothesis, kuburikidza neyemuedzo bvunzo, apo ichi chiri chokwadi manyepo.
Semuenzaniso: kana imwe bvunzo paine imwe sampule saizi ine simba rehupfumi hwe80%, izvi zvinoreva kuti pane mukana we80% wekuwana data inoita kuti tirambe pfungwa dzisiri dzechokwadi, chero izvi Chaizvoizvo ndeenhema (onawo Weltkovitz, Cohen uye Ewen, Statistics for Behaeveal Sayenzi, 2009).

Maitiro ehurongwa: [mutauro] Kutsiiwa kweimwe phoneme neimwe, nepo maitiro ehurongwa hwechibvumirano achiramba asina kuchinjika (ona, semuenzaniso, Santoro, Panero uye Cianetti, Iwo mashoma pairs 1, 2011).

Maitiro ekugadzira: [mutauro] Shanduko yeiyo syllabic chimiro chezwi, neshanduko muhuwandu hwezvinhu uye mukutevedzana kwemakonsoniti uye mavhawero ayo anoumba (ona semuenzaniso, Santoro, Panero uye Cianetti, Iwo mashoma pairs 1, 2011)

Kuzvizadzisa chiporofita: vedi Tarisiro mhedzisiro

Kukurudzira Aphasics 'Kutaurirana Kunobudirira (PACE) : [aphasia] pragmatic nzira yekurapa kweanphasia umo murapi wekutaura anozivisa nzira dzese dzinogona kusimbisa nekusimbisa kutaudzana kwemurwere (ona nezvekutarisa pamusoro peCityanda mu Flosi, Charlemagne naRossetto, Lkugadzirisa munhu ane aphasia, 2013: 105 e Charlemagne, Pragmatic inosvika kune aphasia kurapwa. Kubva kumamodeli e empirical kuenda kuPACE maitiro, 2002)

Kurema chiratidzo: [psychometry] arithmetic shanduko yeZ zero (ine zvinoreva 0 uye yakajairika kutsauka 1) ikave mucherechedzo ine zvinoreva gumi uye yakajairika kutsauka 10. Kana ichienzaniswa neZ zero chirevo saka chakasiyana mukutaridzika asi zvivakwa zvinoramba zvakafanana. Kubatsira kwayo ndekwekuti kunoita kuti zvisazoita kuti mucherechedzo une mutengo usina kunaka uitike, kunyangwe ukaderera pane avhareji. Izvo zvinoshandiswa zvakasiyana siyana bvunzo dzakadai semuenzaniso, NEPSY-II.

Scalar alama: [psychometry] arithmetic shanduko yeZ zero (ine zvinoreva 0 uye yakajairika kutsauka 1) ikave mucherechedzo ine zvinoreva gumi uye yakajairika kutsauka 10. Kana ichienzaniswa neZ zero chirevo saka chakasiyana mukutaridzika asi zvivakwa zvinoramba zvakafanana. Kubatsira kwayo ndekwekuti kunoita kuti zvisazoita kuti mucherechedzo une mutengo usina kunaka uitike, kunyangwe ukaderera pane avhareji. Izvo zvinoshandiswa zvakasiyana siyana bvunzo dzakadai semuenzaniso, iyo WISC-IV.

Standard Score: [psychometry] chikoro chinoshandiswa mune dzinoverengeka bvunzo (semuenzaniso mune BVN 5-11) ine zvivakwa zvakafanana neIQ (onawo Intellectual Quotient).

T chikamu (T chiero): [psychometry] arithmetic shanduko yeZ chikero (ine zvairehwa 0 uye yakajairika kutsauka 1) ikave mucherechedzo ine zvinoreva makumi mashanu uye akajairika kutsauka 50. Ichienzaniswa neye Z mamaki saka zvakasiyana chete mukuonekwa asi zvivakwa zvinoramba zvakafanana. Kubatsira kwayo ndekwekuti kunoita kuti kuwanikwe kwejiwo neyakaipa kukosha zvisingaite, kunyangwe kana yakaderera pane avhareji (ona zvakare Ercolani, Areni naMannetti, Tsvagiridzo Mune Psychology, 1990). Izvo zvinoshandiswa zvakasiyana siyana bvunzo dzakadai semuenzaniso, iyo Shongwe yeLondon.

Z chiratidzo (chiyero chakaenzana): . Izvo zviyero zvine zvinoreva 0 uye kutsauka kwakatsauka 1 kuitira kuti mucherechedzo weZ uone kuti 0 inoratidza kukosha kwakapindirana netarisiro, chikero chakakwira kupfuura 0 inoratidza kukosha kwakakwirira kupfuura avhareji uye chikero chakaderera pane 0 chinoratidza kukosha kwakadarika kupfuura pakati Iyo inowanikwa nekubvisa kukosha kweiyo kubva kune yakacherechedzwa kukosha uye nekukamura zvese nekumira kwakatsauka kweavhareji: (kukosha kwakacherechedzwa - vezvenhau) / kutsauka kwakajairika (onawo Welkowits, Cohen naEwen, Statistics yeZvibodzwa zveSainzi, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (ona hemianopia)

R

Isiri Yakasarudzika Yakatongwa Tesi (RCT): . Izvo zvinopa kuti izvo zvinyorwa zvinotsvaga pakaitwa zvakagoverwa zvoga (zvakasarudzika) muboka rekuyedza kana muboka rekutonga kuitira kuti munhu wese ave nemukana wakafanana wekugumisa mune imwe kana imwe (mapoka asina kubatwa), nokudaro zvichideredza mukana wekuti mapoka akasiyana zvakanyanya kubva kune mumwe nemumwe, izvo zvaizokanda kusahadzika pane zvinogoneka zvekuchinja kwemafaro (onawo Ercolani, Areni naMannetti, Tsvagiridzo Mune Psychology, 1990).

Percentile chinzvimbo: . Italian bhatiri yeADHD (onawo Ercolani, Areni naMannetti, Tsvagiridzo Mune Psychology, 1990).

Reality Oriental Therapy (ROT): [neuropsychology] Therapy ine chinangwa chayo chikuru ndechekuvandudza kutarisisa kwekufamba kwenguva, munzvimbo uye zvine runyararo pachako. Iko kune yakasarudzika ROT (yakanyatsorondedzerwa zvakatevedzana yemisangano) uye isina kurongwa ROT, inoitwa nevasina hunyanzvi vashandi zuva rese. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Imeji yekufunga, 2007: 13)

Yakaderedzwa Syntax Therapy (REST): [aphasia] Kurapa kweagrammatic aphasic varwere avo, panzvimbo yekutarisa kugadzirwa kwemarongedzo akarongeka, anovimbisa kushandiswa kwezvinhu zvakagadziriswa senge izvo zvinoshandiswa colloquically nezvakajairika zvidzidzo (zvinotsanangurwa na Springer et al., 2000; vd. Bass, Ziva uye udzidzise aphasia, 2009: 35)

Kugadziridzwa [kurapa kwekutaura]: maitiro ayo anosanganisira kudzokorora izvo interlocutor achangoburitsa achisiya izvo zvisina kuchinjika asi ichipa muenzanisiro chaiwo nekuwedzera izwi rakashaika kana kutsiva izwi nerechokwadi kana rakakodzera rimwe (kuti uwane mamwe mashoko ona "Matekiniki ekupindira" mukati Misimboti yekurapa kwekutaura muzera rekukura, p. 235)

chisimbiso: [psychology, maitiro] kukurudzira kunowedzera kana kuderedza mukana wekuonekwa kweimwe maitiro. Kusimbisa kwakakamurwa muzvikamu zvina zvikuru: chepuraimari, sekondari (kana yakagadziriswa), yakanaka uye isina kusimbisa kusimbisa. Kusimbaradza kwekutanga ndeaya anobatana nekupukunyuka (chikafu, zvinwiwa, kurara, bonde ...) nepo kusimbiswa kwesecond kusapindirana kwekutanga kukurudzira kunowana kukosha kwekusimbisa sezvo vachibatanidzwa nezvimwe zvinokurudzira izvo zvatova nemasimba ekusimbisa. Kusimbiswa kwakanaka kunowanzo fungwa kunoonekwa nechinhu sekunakidza uye kunowedzera mukana weimwe hunhu hwavanobatana navo apo kusimbisa kwakashata kunowedzera mukana wehunhu nekurega kukurudzira kwakashata semhedzisiro yekuitwa kwayo (ona zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Cognitive reservation: . Zvinoenderana nehunhu hwega hwega munetwork network idzo dzinotungamirwa neupenyu hupenyu hwakadai sedzidzo, mabasa uye mabasa ekuzorora (ona zvakare Passafiume na Di Giacomo, Alzheimer's dementia, 2006).

S

Asina kutsanangurwa Phonetic Segment (SFI): [mutauro] (kana syllabic, kana protomorphemic fillers) anogara panzvimbo yakatemwa mune chirevo uye pamwe achizadzisa chinzvimbo che "chinzvimbo mamaki" ezve zvinoshanda zvikamu (Bottari et al., Zvimiro zvemisikanzwa mukuwanikwa kweItaly yemahara morphology, 1993, yakanyorwa muna: Ripamonti et al., Lepi: Mutauro unokatyamadza wehudiki, 2017)

Semantic Feature Analysis: [aphasia] nzira inofungidzira kuti kudzoreredzwa kwechokwadi ruzivo kunoitika kuburikidza nekuwana semantic network maererano nefungidziro yekuti kumanzisirwa kwema semantic hunhu hwechinangwa kunofanira kuita kuti itore chinangwa pachayo pamusoro pechikonzero chayo, kufambisa kudzoreredzwa kweshoko, nemhedzisiro yekudyidzana pane zvimwe zvinangwa zvinogovana humwe hunhu hwakafanana (ona Boscarato naModena mu Flosi, Charlemagne naRossetto, Lkugadzirisa munhu ane aphasia, 2013: 44).

Kunzwiwa kwebvunzo: [zviverengero]: kugona kwebvunzo kuona zvinyorwa zvine humwe hunhu (hwechokwadi positives), semuenzaniso kuvepo kwe dyslexia. Mune mamwe mazwi, ndicho chikamu chezvidzidzo izvo, kuburikidza nebvunzo, chiedzo chakanakira hunhu kana chichienzaniswa nehuwandu hwezvidzidzo zvavanazvo uchitora muenzaniso weiyo dyslexia zvakare, kunzwa kwechikamu ndicho chikamu chezvidzidzo izvo pane imwe bvunzo dyslexic, zvichienzaniswa nehuwandu hwevaya chaizvo dyslexic.
Kana tikadaidza S kunzwa kwekunzwa, A huwandu hwesimba hwakanyatso nyatso bvunzwa neye bvunzo (yechokwadi positives) uye B huwandu hweiyo dyslexics isina kuonekwa neye bvunzo (kunyepa kwenhema), ipapo manzwisisiro anogona kuratidzwa seS = A / (A + B) .

Kuumbwa: [Psychology, hunhu] Kuisiswa neyekuedza kweakakumbirwa kushanda kwemaitiro. Iyo ine mukurongedza kusimbisa maitiro echinyorwa icho chinosvikira pakupindura mhinduro kuti iwanikwe (semuenzaniso, zvishoma nezvishoma kuunza mhuka kumanikidza lever) (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Attenderal switch: [neuropsychology] Shift yekutarisa inotarisa kubva kune chimwe chinhu, kana chiitiko, kuenda kune chimwe, zvose zviri mukati zvakapoteredzwa nenyaya yacho (Marzocchi, Molin, Poli, Attention uye Metacognition, 2002: 12).

Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [neuropsychology] nyeredzi yekuziva uye inokanganisa kukanganisa inokonzeresa kune lesion yeiyo cerebellum. Iko kukanganisika kunogona kuve kwakawanda uye kunetsekana kwakawanda masizinda akadai sekushanda mundangariro, mutauro, mabasa makuru, kuiswa uye kudzidza maitiro, visuo-nzvimbo yekugadzirisa, kutarisisa kwekutarisira, anoshanda uye maitiro ehurongwa (Schmahmann, Iyo cerebellum uye kuziva, 2018).

Disconnection syndrome: [neuropsychology] kuchenjera kwakabatana zvinoenderana nerion yeiyo chena nyaya misumbu inobatanidza nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzehuropi (onawo Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001).

Balint Holmes syndrome: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological chirwere chinoratidzwa neyakafanana gumbo). Ichi chirwere chinowanzobatanidzwa kune maviri-maviri parieto-occipital lesions (onawo Ladàvas naBerti, Manual yeNeuropsychology, 2014).

Supervisor Attention System: [mabasa makuru] Norman naSharice vane theorized modhi ine maviri anoshanda masisitimu. Muchiitiko chekutanga chiitiko chinodzora maratidziro maimiriri akasiyana-siyana ekudzidza maitiro anomiririrwa, ayo anosarudzwa achipindura kukurudzira kwenzvimbo, zvichibva pamatanho ezve otomatiki mune yechipiri nyaya, kana kusarudzika kwega kwakaringana kuita kuti zviitike imwe tsika kana activation yakadaro haisi kushanda kune iyo chaiyo mamiriro, iyo Attentional Supervisor System iyo inodzosera activation yemaitiro akasiyana siyana maitiro kuti usarudze yakakodzera kwazvo zvichienderana nemamiriro ezvinhu (ona zvakare Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Refundization, 2012).

Somatoagnosia: [neuropsychology] kurasikirwa kwekuziva maitiro emuviri wemuviri (ona zvakare Doron, Parot uye Del Miglio, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2001)

Sound: [mutauro] Sisitiro yemaitiro: kutsiva kweinzwi risinganzwi pamwe neinzwi rinoenderana. Semuenzaniso: "bane" ye "chingwa" (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology).

Kukosha kwechiyedzo [zviverengero]: kugona kwebvunzo kuona zvidzidzo izvo zvisina humwe hunhu (hwechokwadi zvakashata), semuenzaniso kusavapo kwechidimbu. Mune mamwe mazwi, iwo chikamu cheizvo zvidzidzo izvo kuburikidza nebvunzo zvisina kunaka kune hunhu zvichienzaniswa nehuwandu hwezvidzidzo izvo zvisinazvo zvachose; kutora muenzaniso wechidhemo zvakare, hunyanzvi ndicho chikamu chezvidzidzo zvine hutano (pasina dementia) mune yakatarwa bvunzo, zvichienzaniswa nehuwandu hweavo vane hutano chaihwo.
Kana tikadana S chaiyo, Hwerenji hweanopomerwa zvakanyatso bvunzwa neye bvunzo (dzechokwadi zvimisikidzo) uye B huwandu hwemanji asina kuwanikwa neiye bvunzo (manyepo posits .

redhiyo: [Psychology] Kunyanya kudzokorora kudzokorora kweimwe kana mazhinji akatevedzana maitiro. Zvinogona kuva zvemhando dzakasiyana: mota, mune yakanyorwa kana kutaurwa kutaurirana, mumitambo, mukudhirowa, nezvimwe. (onawo Galimberti, Dudziro Itsva ye Psychology, 2018).

Stopping: [mutauro] kutsiva kwefoni inongoramba iine imwe isingapfuurire imwe (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. chinyorwa chedu pamusoro peFonetiki uye Phonology).

subitizing: [neuropsychology] kugona kukurumidza uye nomazvo kusiyanisa hushoma hwezvinhu (Kaufman et al., Kusarura kwehuwandu hwekuona, 1949).

Sulcus glottidis: [izwi] kukuvara kunokonzerwa nekubika mucosa yekambo yemazwi iyo inogadzira sac inopinda munzvimbo yaReinke. Iyo inofungidzirwa kuve yakakonzerwa nekuvhurika kwehusiku kweanestermoid cyst mumakore ekutanga ehupenyu (cf. Albera naRossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Idzidziso Yekuziva yeMultimedia Kudzidza kana Cindows: [kudzidza] dzidziso iyo inofanoona kuvepo kwemapurani maviri ekudzidza, imwe inoonekwa uye imwechete yemazwi, rimwe nerimwe riine mukana wakakwana (3 kana 4 zvinhu panguva). Mamwe mashoko akasiyana anogona kuongororwa, uye nekudaro akadzidziswa, kana akapatsanurwa pane ese mairi nzira (inoonekwa uye inonzwika) panzvimbo penzira imwechete (semuenzaniso, zvinyorwa zvakanyorwa nemifananidzo); izvi zvinodaidzwa maitiro maitiro.
Kana, kune rimwe divi, isu tikapa ruzivo rwacho nenzira isingawanzo pamatanho akati wandei (anoonekwa uye anodhinda) panzvimbo peimwe chete (semuenzaniso, hurukuro), iyi dzidziso inofungidzira kudzikira mukuita kwakabatana nekuremerwa kwendangariro inoshanda; izvi zvinonzi izvo redundancy athari (onawo Mayer naFiorella, Nheyo dzeKuderedza Kunze Kugadziriswa muMultimedia Kudzidza: Kubatana, Kusayina, Redundancy, Spatial Contiguity, uye temperi Contiguity Nheyo., 2014)

Chiratidzo Ehupfumi (Chiratidzo Kusimbisa Sisitimu): [psychology, maitiro] maitiro epfungwa anosanganisira mukugadzira "chibvumirano" pakati pechidzidzo nemubereki wake kana mudzidzisi, kubudikidza nemirau iyi inomisikidzwa; chinhu chinofananidzira (kana chiratidzo) saka chinopihwa yega yega maitiro akafanira anodikanwa nemirau iyi, nepo chero chiratidzo chinobviswa kana hachizopiwiwi mukukanganisa kwacho. Pakusvika huwandu hwakatemerwa hwemapepa, aya anozoshandurwa kuita bhonasi yakambobvumidzwa (ona futi Vio uye Spagnoletti, Inattentive uye Hyperactive Vana: Kudzidziswa kwevabereki, 2013).

V

ukoshi: [psychometry] dhigirii kune iro chimwe chinhu chinhu (bvunzo) chairo chinoyera chinja chekufarira. Iyo inoumbwa kunyanya kwekubvumidzwa kwemukati, kuenderana kwechokwadi uye kuvaka kusimbisa (onawo Statistics for Behavioral Sayenzi, Welkowitz, Cohen uye Ewen, 2009).

Kukosha kwekufungidzira: [Statistical] yepasiripo mukana wemuedzo kuferesa chikamu chechinyorwa chakanyatso zivikanwa se asiri kuva neunhu (hunhu hwechokwadi) neruremekedzo kune huwandu hweavo vasina kunaka kune hunhu ihwohwo hunhu (dzechokwadi negatives + nhema negatives). Semuenzaniso, kana isu taive pamberi pebvunzo yekuona aphasic zvidzidzo, iyo yekufungidzira yakashata inogona kunge iri chiyero pakati pezvinyorwa zvine hutano zvakanyatso zivikanwa nemuedzo zvine chekuita nehuwandu hwehutano hwakanaka pamwe ne aphasics iyo isina kunaka mukuedzwa (yechokwadi ine hutano + aphasic zvisina kukodzera kuverengerwa sehutano hwakanaka).
Kana tikadaidza VPN kukosha kusingafungi kukosha, Iyo iyo yakazara yezvinyorwa zvakagadziriswa zvine hutano uye B iyo yakazara ye aphasic zvidzidzo zvakaganhurwa zvisiri izvo saaphasic saka tinogona kuratidza kukosha kwekufanotaura kukosha seinotevera: VPN = A / (A + B).

Yakakodzera fungidziro kukosha: [zviverengero] zvinotevera mukana wekubvunzurudza kufungidzira huwandu hwezvidzidzo zvakanyatsoratidzwa seine hunhu (hwechokwadi positives) zvine huwandu hwakazara hweavo vane hunhu ihwohwo hunhu (hunhu hwechokwadi + hunoreva nhema Semuenzaniso, kana isu taive pamberi pebvunzo yekuona aphasic zvidzidzo, kukosha kwayo kwekufungidzira kungave huwandu pakati pemafasics ayo anozivikanwa nenzira yekuedzwa achienzaniswa nehuwandu hweasphics uye isina-aphasics iyo inobatsira muyedzo (yechokwadi aphasics uye hutano hwakaongororwa zvisizvo as aphasic).
Kana tikadaidza VPP kukosha kwekufungidzira kukosha, Iwo huwandu hwakazara hwakajeka aphasic zvidzidzo uye B huwandu hwezvidzidzo zvine hutano zvisirizvo zvakabatwa sa aphasic saka tinogona kuratidza kukosha kwekufungidzira kukosha kunotevera: VPP = A / (A + B).

Vanishing Cues (nzira yekuderera mazano): [neuropsychology] yekumusoro nzira yakatarisana nekudzikira kunofambira mberi kwemazano maererano neruzivo rwunofanira kurangarirwa, mushure mechikamu chekudzidza chimwechete (onawo Glisky, Schacter uye Tulving, Kudzidza uye kuchengetedza mazwi anoenderana nekombuta mune varwere vakaremerwa mundangariro: Nzira yekunyangarika,).

makakava: [nhamba] chiyero chekusiyana kwehuwandu hweparamende hwakatenderedza zvavakareva; inoyera kuti izvi zvimiro zvakadii zvakatsauka zvakapatsika kubva pane zvoreva arithmetic (onawo Vio uye Spagnoletti, Inattentive uye Hyperactive Vana: Kudzidziswa kwevabereki, 2013).

vergeture: [izwi] kushungurudzika kwemahara yemahara yetambo yekushongedza nekuomerera mucosa kune izwi remazwi (cf. Albera naRossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

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