Iyo ADHD inoperekedzwa neakasiyana-siyana neuropsychological deficits anozivikanwa. Kunyanya, nzira dzakasiyana siyana dzekuziva dzine chekuita nemabasa makuru dzinowanzo shandurwa, senge kupindura inhibition, kungwara kunzwisisa, kuronga, kusvinura uye kushanda mundangariro[4][8] (onawo iyoshanduko yehunhu hwekuziva muADHD).

Muvakuru vane ADHD, kushomeka mune Executive basa kunogona kuitika muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva nezvisarudzo zvisingamanikidzi, kusashivirira kwakashata kunetseka, kunetseka mukutarisirwa kwenguva (semuenzaniso, kunonoka uye kuva neruzivo rwakaipa rwenguva), kugona kubata uye kuzvikurudzira, kutadza kugona kuronga uye kuronga zviitwa[3].

Ivo vanyori vetsvagiridzo yatinoda kukuudza nezvayo[3] vanofunga kuti matambudziko ekupedzisira akadhindwa anogona kunge achibatanidzwa mune imwe chikamu kuenda kune imwe insufficiently yakadzidza deficit muADHD: iyo ye maonero ndangariro. Pfungwa iyi inoreva kugona kwekuita zvichitevera chinangwa chakarongwa kwechinguvana chinotevera[3] (maonero ekuyeuka anoenderana nenguva), panguva yemberi yechiitiko chakati (tarisiro inotarisirwa inoenderana nechiitiko) kana wapedza kuita chiitiko (chiitiko chinotarisirwa-chakagadzirirwa ndangariro).
Mimwe mienzaniso yekurangarira ingangoita yekurangarira kuenda kunogadzwa nachiremba nenguva dza 16:00 kana kunwa mushonga usati wadya (ona zvakare chinyorwa chedu pa anokwanisa kuyeuka mune akawanda sclerosis zvichingodaro kugadziriswazve kwekuyeuka kwekutarisa).


Yekufunga ndangariro inematanho akati wandei nemaitiro[3]: chekutanga pane zvese, achinangwa uye nguva yekuitika inofanirwa kurongwa; gare gare zvichafanira chinangwa chakachengetwa mukudzokorora ndangariro uye unoramba uchishanda paunenge uchiita zvimwe zviitiko; pakupedzisira, pazvinenge zvakakodzera kuita chinangwa chekongiri, zvichave zvichidikanwa tunodzivisa zvimwe zviito mukufambira mberi nechinangwa che Shandura zviitiko nyore, nokudaro kutanga kuita izvo zvakarongwa zvenguva iyoyo.

Tichifunga nezvezvichangobva kukurukurwa, zvinoita sezviri pachena kuti pfungwa yeyekufunga ndangariro inosanganisira yekureba-yekudzora (kudzokorora) ndangariro uye kusvika kumwero mukuru mabasa makuru.
Zvinoenderana neiyo Executive function deficits yatozivikanwa muADHD, ivo vanoonekwawo mune ino mamiriro shanduko yemafungiro echirangaridzo[7], pamwe chete na tsika yekuda kuerekana waenda[6]. Pasinei neizvi, hapana munhu akange achiri kuongorora kubatana kunobvira pakati pezvimiro zviviri izvi.

The pfungwa[3] ndiko kuti kutsaura kunogona kune chekuita nehurombo hwekufungidzira kuti utaridzirwe mune ramangwana (kutarisisa kune ramangwana) uye nekunetseka kuzvifungidzira (episodic remangwana kufunga). Vanhu vanowanzo tendekera vanogona kutarisisa kune zvazvino uye vanozoomerwa nekufungidzira zvichaitika mune ramangwana[4]. Muchokwadi, zvakataurwa kuti kugona kufungidzira ramangwana kunogona kuve nehukama pamwe nekuumbwa kwezvinangwa, chikamu chakakosha chekushanda kwakaringana kweyemusoro anofunga yekuyeuka.[1].

Kutanga kubva kune zvivakwa izvi Altgassen uye nevamwe[3] vakagadzira kutsvagisa nechinangwa che kuongorora kuvapo kwekukanganisika kwekukanganisika kukanganisika muADHD muhupenyu chaihwo uye enzanisa zvavakaita nevaya vari mukati angangoita memory test muchipatara, ongorora chinongedzo chinogona kuitika pakati pekukanganisa tsika uye kusashanda kunaka kune ramangwana, uye nzwisisa kana angangoita muchikamu kukonzera hukama pakati peADHD uye maitiro ekuda kusvika zvinogona kuva yakabatana nekuona kukanganisika kwekuyeuka.

Tsvakurudzo

ivo vanyori vekudzidza[3] vakasarudza mapoka maviri ezvidzidzo zvevakuru, rimwe rinosanganisira vanhu makumi matatu nevatatu vane ADHD uye rimwe rinosanganisira vanhu makumi matatu nevatanhatu vane kukura chaiko. Vese vakaedzwa miedzo nekukurumidza uye kunonoka episodic memory, basa remumba re tarisiro ingangoitika murabhoritari nebasa remumba maonero ekurangarira muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva; vakapedzawo bvunzurudza tsika yekuda kuerekana waenda muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva uye bvunzo yekuongorora iyo tsika yekuda kuratidzirwa mune ramangwana.

Mhedzisiro yacho

Yekutsvaira data inoratidza dzinoverengeka zvinonakidza mhinduro

  • The dissociation pakati peanotarisirwa memory performance mumarabhoritari uye muhupenyu chaihwo: apo mune zvidzidzo neADHD pakanga pasina kushomeka mune tarisiro yekuongororwa kwerabhoritari, muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva kunetseka kweanotarisirwa kuyeuka kwakanyatsojeka kupfuura mune vakuru vane chaiwo kukura.
  • Kuenderana kwakawanikwa pakati kugona kuyeuka zvaunovavarira muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva e Yakadudzirwa episodic memory test murabhoritari (inowirirana nekukosha kwekushanda kwakanyatso kweye episodic memory yekuita kweyemusoro yekufungidzira).
  • Zviratidzo zveADHD zvaive nechekuita neumwe kushoma kugona kuyeuka zvaunovavarira zvakaziviswa kare.
  • Vanhu vane ADHD vakataura wani tsika yekuda kuerekana waenda yakakwirira kwazvo kune iyo yakajairika kukura.
  • Muboka rine ADHD rakawanikwa kutaridzika zvishoma kune ramangwana.
  • La tsika yekuda kuerekana waenda zvakabatana zvine simba ne nhamba yezvakarongwa zviitiko chaizvo zvakaitwa, nekuomarara kweADHD uye kutaridzika kune ramangwana.
  • Ukama pakati ADHD zviratidzo e tsika yekuda kuerekana waenda akasarudzika maonero ndangariro kushomeka (shanduko yeanofungidzirwa kurangarira inogona kukonzeresa pakutsika kwekuita kwekuzvipira muvanhu vane ADHD).

mhedziso

Kutorwa pamwe chete, idzi data dzinotungamira kune dzakasiyana siyana kuratidzwa, kunyanya panekushandiswa uye kududzirwa kwemayedzo mune kiriniki maitiro muADHD: munyika medu mune kushomeka kwemayedzo kuti uongorore zvingangoita ndangariro uye izvi zvinogona kugadzira matambudziko akakosha pakuronga nenzira kwayo matambudziko ayo vanhu vane ADHD vangasangana muhupenyu hwezuva nezuva; nekuwedzera, iyi tsvagiridzo inoratidza kuti bvunzo dzeLabhoritari (yakafanana neyemuropsychological bvunzo dzinoitirwa munzvimbo yekiriniki) dzinogona kunge dzisina kukwana kubata matambudziko chaiwo mumamiriro chaiwo, zvichitungamira zvakanyanya munjodzi yekusaremekedza kukanganiswa kwekusakwana mu hupenyu hwezuva nezuva.
Icho chokwadi chekuti muvanhu vane ADHD pane maitiro ekuwedzera ekurairira uye kushoma kwekutarisa ramangwana kunoratidza chingangoita causal link pakati peaya maviri maitiro, izvo, zvakasanganiswa nemukana wekuti tsika yekumisikidza kuzvipira kwakanamirwa nekushomeka kweanogona kuyeuka ndangariro, anotiita fungidzira nzvimbo dzemberi dzekupindira[1][2]; semuenzaniso, zvinofungidzirwa kuti kupindira parakananga kune ramangwana uye pane kugona kufungidzira kuti kunogona kuvandudza tarisiro yekugona kuyeuka huwandu uye nekudaro kudzikisira maitiro ekufungidzira muvanhu vane ADHD (uye kwete chete).

Nekudaro, iyo inofanirwa kuverengerwa kuti iyi ndeimwe resetational research uye saka izvo zvinogona kungoratidza hukama hunobvira pakati pezvinhu zvinopesana; saka zvakafanira kuti kuenderera mberi kutsvakwa kunoonekwa uko kunobatanidza kungabvira caasm kubatanidza pakati pezvakasiyana (maitiro euchenjeri) anotariswa mune uku kutsvagurudzo.

Bibliographie

  1. Altgassen, M., Rendell, PG, Bernhard, A., Henry, JD, Bailey, PE, Phillips, LH, & Kliegel, M. (2015). Kufunga kweramangwana kunonatsiridza ramangwana rekurangarira mashandiro uye kuronga kunoitwa kune vakuru vakuru. Iyo Quarterly Journal yeAcyumental Psychology, 68(1), 192-204.
  2. Altgassen, M., Kretschmer, A., & Schnitzspahn, KM (2017). Yemberi yekufunga mirairo inovandudza ingangoita ndangariro kuita mune vechidiki. Mwana Neuropsychology, 23(5), 536-553.
  3. Altgassen, M., Scheres, A., & Edel, MA (2019). Anotarisirwa ndangariro (zvishoma) anopindirana kubatana pakati peADHD zviratidzo uye kuverengera. AdHD Kufunga Kuremara uye Hyperacaction Kusagadzikana, 11(1), 59-71.
  4. Corbett, BA, Constantine, LJ, Hendren, R., Rocke, D., & Ozonoff, S. (2009). Kuongorora Executive inoshanda muvana vane autism spectrum kusagadzikana, kucherechedzwa kushomeka kwehutano kusagadzikana uye kujairika kukura. Psychiatry tsvakurudzo, 166(2-3), 210-222.
  5. Rebetez, MML, Bharisiki, C., Rochat, L., D'Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Kuverengera, kufunga kwemhedzisiro mhedzisiro, uye episodic ramangwana kufunga. Kuziva uye kuziva, 42, 286-292.
  6. Simbi, P. (2007). Unhu hwekudzikisira: A meta-analytic uye theoretical ongororo yequintessential yekuzvidzora kutadza. Psychological bulletin, 133(1), 65.
  7. Talbot, KDS, Müller, U., & Kerns, KA (2018). Anotarisirwa ndangariro muvana vane hanya nekushomeka kwehutano kusagadzikana: wongororo. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 32(5), 783-815.
  8. Willcutt, EG, Doyle, AE, Nigg, JT, Faraone, SV, & Pennington, BF (2005). Ukoshi hwehutongi hwebasa rekuita kwekutarisa-kushomeka / kusagadzikana kwehutano: meta-analytic ongororo. Biological psychiatry, 57(11), 1336-1346.

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